The Dhegiha Sioux



War faces, 49k



The Dhegiha Sioux were a group of tribes speaking Siouan languages and living in the Central Plains. The Southern Plains people probably came from the Ohio River Valley around 1500 and included, in the North, the Omaha, Ponca, Osage, and Kansa tribes. The Quapaw were in the South, on the lower Arkansas River. These peoples were both hunters and farmers who grew corn.

Tatoos and facial / body painting were common markings of the Plains Warriors and considered protective virtues. It was also used for visual intimidation of enemies. Often the horses were also decorated to reflect his riders' bravery and exploits.

The current name probably comes from the French traders' misinterpretation of their name: wazhazhe. They lived in southern Missouri and northern Arkansas where Jaques Marquette encountered them in 1673. The Osage allied themselves with the French against the Fox in 1714. They distinguished themselves so much, that their name became synonymous with "enemy" for many other tribes.

In 1802, French traders persuaded them to travel up the Arkansas River and settle in Oklahoma, but they were subjected to a constant stream of other tribes who fleed into Oklahoma by the encroaching Whites. Initailly, they mnoved onto a reservation in Kansas, but settled later in Oklahoma (1870).

Numbering 6,200 in 1780, they increased to more than 6,700 by 1985.

The meaning of their name is unknown. They lived at the junction of the Niobrara and Missouri Rivers in Nebraska.
Being descendants of the Omaha, they had a similar way of life.

They were conquered by their enemies, the Dakota Sioux and subsequently moved to Oklahoma in 1877. A small group refused to leave their territory and part of it later became a reservation in 1889.

Their population was estimated at 800 in 1780. By 1940, there were 401 Ponca in Nebraska and 2,272 in Oklahoma.

Their name means "those who march against the wind." They lived in northeastern Nebraska, on the Missouri River. Their villages consisted of houses maid of soil and/or bark supported by frames. During buffalo hunting season, they lived in tepees, as did other Prairie tribes.

They had no large-scale wars with the Whites, but were consistently at war with the Dakota Sioux. They sold their land in 1854 except for one parcel in an area taken from the Winnebago - and this later became their reservation.

Numbering 2,800 in 1780, they were 1,300 in 1970.



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